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LILIES AND ORCHIDS 



LILIES AND 
ORCHIDS 



A SERIES OF DRAWINGS IN COLOR OF 
SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING AND 
BEAUTIFUL SPECIES OF THESE FAMILIES 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIVE TEXT 



BY 



ROSINA C. BOARDMAN 




NEW YORK 

ROBERT GRIER COOKE 

INCORPORATtD 

MDCDVI 



Copyright, /i)of>, ty 
ROBERT GRIER COOKE, Inc 



RcilH-rt Giier Cooke, lucorporate,!. New York 



FORI-.WORI) 

In this little book 1 have endeavored to set 
ff)rlh an informal sketch of three flower fami- 
lies growing in the United States, cast of the 
Rocky Mountains, and in Canada, together 
with a few stray relatives from the Pacific 
slope, illustrated by faithful color studies of 
the more prominent e.\am|)les. 

R. C. H. 
New York, 
1906 



LILES AND ORCHIDS 



PLATE I 

WOOD ].II,V 

Liliiim Philaddphkiim 



LILIES 

THE Family of Lilies is one of the most interesting 
and one of the handsomest flower groups which 
we possess. At first it was very large, for many 
closely connected species were included; but it swelled to 
such dimensions that the botanists were forced to sub- 
divide it more and more, until now it is comparatively 
small. The latest division (which every one has not yet 
adopted) is the grouping of the Bellworts, Hellebore, 
Blazing-Star and a few others in the Bunch-Flower 
Family; the Green-Briers and their climbing relatives 
in the Smilax Family; and the Asparagus, Solomon's 
Seal and those similar in the Lily-of-the- Valley Family. 
At present it is only with the latter and with the Lily 
Family Proper that we will concern ourselves. 

THE LILY FAMILY 

The Lily Family Proper is made up of leafy-stemmed 
herbs, growing from., bulbs or corms. The leaves are 
always parallel-veined and simple. The flowers are 
regular and generally perfect, having a perianth of six 
even segments, sometimes connected; six stamens, with 
two-celled anthers, growing from the bases of the seg- 
ments; and a three-celled pistil, with a generally three- 
lobed stigma, at the end of a long style. The fruit is an 
oblong capsule. The seed differs according to the variety. 

PLATE I 

Wood Lily, Red Lily, Lilium Philadelphicum. 
Root. — A bulb of fleshy scales. Stem. — Simple, i°-3° 
high. Leaves. — Narrow, pointed, in whorls. Flowers. 
— Large, showy, erect, 1-5, terminal, scarlet and 
orange. Perianth. — Of broad segments, narrowing be- 
low, purple-dotted within. Stamens (a). — Dark red. 
Pistil (/)). — With a head-like stigma. Seeds. — Long, 
with narrow wings. 

This is one of our most showy and beautiful flowers. 
It grows in dry woods and salt marshes, from Canada to 
North Carolina, from June to August. I have found 
very small specimens, not over 5' high, on Nantucket 
Island. 




a.'-g-'03 



PLATE I. Reduced about H from Life Slie 
Wood Lily, Lilium Pkiladeipkicum 



PLATE II 

WILD VKLI.OW I.II.V 

Lilium Canadcnsc 



Western Red Lily, L. iimbellatum, is much like 
the Wood Lily, but smaller and more slender, with 
linear leaves. It blooms in dry soil during June and 
July, from Ohio to Northwest Territory and south to 
Arkansas. 

Southern Red Lily, L. Catesbaei, is much the same, 
with slender, small, alternate leaves and recurved, pointed 
segments. It grows in wet ground in summer, from 
North Carolina to Florida. 



Wild Yellow Lily, Field Lily, Canada Lily, 
Liliuni Canadensc. Root. — Bulbous. Stem. — Simple, 
2°-5° high, stout. Leaves. — Lanceolate, in whorls. 
Flowers. — Terminal, 1-16, drooping on long recurved 
stalks, bright yellow and orange, purple-dotted. Peri- 
anth. — With recurved segments (not narrowing below). 
Stamens (a). — Red-brown. Pistil (h). — With a three- 
lobed, head-shaped stigma. Seeds. — Flat, horizontal, 
numerous. 

These gorgeous flowers bloom in early summer, in 
fields and swamps, from Nova Scotia to Alabama and west 
to the Mississippi. They might indeed be "the lilies of 
the field " of the New Testament, for the glor\' of Solomon 
would pale beside them. To see a field of them waving 
their golden bells above the tall grasses is a sight to be 
remembered. There are many such fields in the Berk- 
shire Hills. 

Lest we come to think that the brilliant liiia are the 
only important members of this family, we will stop here 
to mention four small genera. 

Leucocrinum, Leucocrinum monlanum, is a low 
Western herb, with long, grass-like inner leaves and 
scale-like outer ones, all from the root. The flowers 
are white, tube-shaped below, divided and salver- 
shaped above. The anthers are coiled. It blooms in 
late spring. 

An-drostephium, Androstephium cocndeum, is some- 
what the same, with blue flowers in an umbel, on a long 
scape. The anthers are straight. It grows on prairies, 
from Kansas southward, in early spring. 



^ 




lA 



♦ 



w 



? 




y 




PLATB n. Reduced H from Life Sue 
Canada Lily. Lilium Caiiadrnse 



PLATE III 

tirk's cap l.ll.V 
Liliiim stiprrbum 



Wild Hyacinth, Quamasia hyacinthina, is an herb, 
with grass-like root-leaves and a tall scape of blue or 
white, racemed flowers, with narrow, separate segments. 
It grows along streams, from Pennsylvania to Alabama 
and west to Minnesota, in spring. 

Star-of-Bethlehem, Ornithogalum iimhcllaliim, is 
somewhat the same, with flowers, white within and green 
without, clustered in a corymb. The leaves have a light 
midrib. 

Drooping Star-of-Bethlehem, O. nutans, has nod- 
ding, white, racemed flowers. 

These both bloom in late spring and are Europeans 
escaped from gardens. 



Turk's-Cap Lily, LUium superhum. Root. — A globe- 
like bulb. Stem. — Simple, stout, 3°-8° high. Leaves. — 
Lanceolate, in whorls or alternate. Flowers. — Ter- 
minal, 3-40, nodding on long flower-stalks, large, showy, 
orange-red, purple-dotted. Perianth. — Of lanceolate 
segments, strongly recurved. Stamens {a). — Burnt- 
orange-red. Pistil {h). — With a head-like stigma. 
Seeds. — Flat, numerous, horizontal. 

This giant among flowering herbs gives to a midsummer 
meadow or marsh a truly regal splendor. It is much more 
beautiful than the Tiger-Lily, which it resembles, for it is 
much more elegant in line and color. Authorities disagree 
about the color. I have always found it red. It ranges 
from Maine to North Carolina and west to Minnesota. 

TiGER-LiLY, L. tigrinum, is like the Turk's-Cap, but 
yellower and coarser. Its stem is stout and almost black, 
with bulblets growing in the axils of the leaves. It is a 
native of China and Japan, escaping from gardens in 
this country and blooming in summer. 

Carolina Lily, L. Carolinianum, is also like the 
Turk's-Cap, with orange-red, nodding flowers and re- 
curved, pointed segments. It is smaller and more slen- 
der, and blooms south of Virginia in August. 

Although I am not speaking of many far Western 
flowers, I cannot refrain from picturing two charming 
Californians, the Yosemite Tiger-Lily and the Washing- 
ton Lily. , 




PLATE III Reduced aboat H from Life Slic 
Turk's Cap Lily. /J/,um suptrbum 



PLATE IV 

YOSEMITE TIGKR-LILY 

Lilium parvinn 



YosEMiTE Tiger-Lily, Lilium parvum (Kellogg). 
Root. — Bulbous and fibrous. Stem. — Simple, 3°-8° 
high. Leaves. — Ovate, pale green, thinner than other 
lilies, in whorls or alternate above. Flowers. — Small, 
f'-i' long, several-flowered, on long, undulating flower- 
stalks, scarlet and orange, purple-dotted. Perianth. — 
Of oval segments, slightly recurved. Stamens ((7). — 
Dark red. Pistil (b). — With a hcad-hke stigma. 
Seeds.— Flat. 

The small, gem-like flowers of this beautiful little lily, 
waving on their long stalks, are particularly attractive. 
I found them in early August on the upper trails of the 
Yosemite Valley, growing amid tall grasses and small 
shrubs. 

Asa Gray's Lily, L. Grayi, seems to be rather like the 
last, with larger flowers and stiff'cr leaves. It blooms in 
July and August, on the peaks of Virginia and North 
Carolina. 

Two genera, not immediately recognisable as lilies, 
follow : 

Grape-Hyacinth, Muscari botryoides, is an herb 
with long, grass-like leaves from the root, and a short, 
thick raceme of very small, blue, slightly fragrant flowers. 
The flowers have a globular, one-pieced perianth, with 
six small teeth. The clusters much resemble a bunch 
of grapes, hence the name. 

Starch Grape-Hyacinth, M . racemosum, is similar, 
with narrower leaves and oblong, starch-scented flowers. 

Both these plants are Europeans escaped from gardens, 
and bloom in spring. 

Star-Grass, Colic-Root, AUiris jarinosa, has a 
rosette of pale, lanceolate leaves at the root and a tall 
scape topped by a long raceme of small, floury-looking, 
bell-shaped flowers, erect, roughish, and white, with a six- 
toothed, one-pieced perianth. This plant grows east of 
the Mississippi in early summer. A yellow form of it 
sometimes appears South. 

Yellow Colic-Root, .4. aurea, is similar. It has 
shorter leaves and shorter yellow flowers. It blooms 
south from New York in early summer. 




^-> -s- "^jy. 



PLATE IV. Kedacnl about y^ from Lire Stif 
Yosemite Tiger Lily. Lilium parvum 



PLATE V 

WASIII.NdTON I.II.V 

Li/ill III Washiiij^loiiiaiia 



Washington Lily, Lilium Washingtoniana. Root. 
— As other lilies. Stem. — Simple, 4°-8° high. Leaves. 
— Small, in whorls or alternate above. Flowers. — Large, 
in a terminal cluster, white, finely dotted with purple and 
pink. Perianth. — Of narrowly oblong, blunt segments, 
somewhat recurved. Stamens {a). Pistil (/)). — With a 
head-like stigma. 

These charming white flowers on their tall, stiff stems 
are as much more delicate than the Bermuda lilies as the 
Turk's-Caps are than the Tiger-Lilies. I found them 
growing in the primeval forests of the Mariposa, in Cali- 
fornia, in July. 

Day-Lily, Hermerocallis jiilva, together with the 
Yellow Day-Lily, H. flava, are summer foreigners es- 
caped from our gardens. They have large, grass-like, 
channelled root-leaves and tawny-orange or yellow 
flowers, growing several on a scape. 

The Garlics or Onions also belong to the Lily 
Family. They all have round or oval, odorous bulbs, 
root-leaves, and small, separate-segmented flowers grow- 
ing at the summit of a scape in a many-flowered umbel. 
Beneath are 2-3 membranous bracts. They are not at- 
tractive plants. 

Wild Leek, Allium Iricoccuiii, has elliptic, early fading 
leaves and white flowers. It blooms in early summer, east 
of the Mississippi and north of North Carolina. 

Chives, A. Schoenoprasum, is a Northern variety, with 
hollow, linear leaves and pink flowers. 

Nodding Wild Onion, A . ccrnuum, has nodding, white, 
rose or purple flowers and flat, channelled, linear leaves. 
It ranges over most of the United States and Canada. 

Prairie Wild Onion, A . stellatum, is much the same, 
with rose-colored, erect flowers. It blooms in summer, on 
the Western plains. 

Wild Garlic, Field Garlic, Crow Garlic, A. 
vineale, is a troublesome weed from Europe, naturalized 
in the Middle States. It has hollow leaves and purple 
and green flowers, sometimes replaced by bulblets, tipped 
with a long hair-hke appendage. 

S 



/^ 







PLATB V. Redacod abont !, from Life Site 
WashiDgton Lily, Lilium Washinj^loniana 



PLATE VI 

YKLLOW .\I)I)I;r"s TOXC.rE 

Erythronium A mcricanum 



Meadow Gaelic, A. Canadense, is similar, with white 
or pink flowers and a fibrous bulb, as have those follow- 
ing. This blooms east of the Mississippi. 

Wild Onion, .4. mutabi/e, has flat, hnear leaves and 
white or pink flowers without bulblets. It grows South 
and West in early summer. 

Nuttall's Wild Onion, A . NuttaUii, has very narrow, 
short leaves and white or rose flowers. It grows in spring, 
on the Western prairies. 

Fraser's Wild Onion, A. re/iculatum, is similar. It 
blooms in summer, west of the Mississippi. 

Yellow False Garlic, Nothoscordum bivalve, is much 
like the Alliums, but lacks their scent, and has yellow 
flowers. It blooms South and West in early spring and 
summer. 

PLATE VI 

Yellow Adder's-Tongue, Dog's-Tooth Violet, 
Erythronium Americannm. Root. — A corm. Stem. — 
Simple, 6'-i° high. Leaves. — Oblanceolate, smooth, 
generally mottled with brown, 2, opposite, or i on the 
flowerless plants. Flowers. — Large, solitary, terminal, 
pale yellow, rarely purplish or white, dotted. Perianth. 
— Of linear, slightly recurved segments. Stamens {a). 
Pistil {b). — With a three-lobed stigma. 

This dainty little lily, with its drooping flower and 
mottled leaves, carpets acres of moist woodland, from 
Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Arkansas, from March 
to May. The name Dog's-Tooth Violet is particularly 
inappropriate. 

White Adder's-Tongue, E. albidum, is similar, with 
white, bluish or purplish flowers. It flourishes west of the 
Mississippi, but is not common East. 

Midland Adder's-Tongue, E. mesachoreum, grows 
with the last. It has narrower leaves, not mottled, and 
lavender flowers. 

Minnesota Adder's-Tongue, E. propullans, blooms 
in May. It has smaller pink blossoms and slightly mot- 
tled leaves. 

Purple Fritillaria, Fritillaria alropitrpurea, is a 
lily with alternate, linear leaves and bell-shaped, nodding, 
6 




PLATE VI. Life Sii« 

Yellow Adder's Tongue. Erythronium Americanum 



PLATE VII 

A 
NUTTAI.I.'S MARIPOSA I.II.Y 

Calocho his Niillallii 

B 
GrNNISOX's MARIPOSA LILY 

Calochorlus Guiuiisoni 



purple or purplish-green flowers with separate segments. 
It blooms in early summer, from North Dakota and 
Wyoming westward. 



PLATE VII, A 

Nuttall's Mariposa Lily, Calochortus NuitallU. 
Root. — A corm. Stem. — Branched, slender, 3'-i5' high. 
Leaves. — Grass-like, alternate. Flowers. — Large, 
showy, white. Perianth. — The three outer segments (or 
sepals) are lanceolate, greenish-white; the three inner 
(or petals) are rather wedge-shaped and recurved, white 
or lavender, with a yellowish base, above which is a 
purple spot. Stamens (<). — Arrow-shaped. Pistil id). 
— With a thrce-lobed stigma. 

So graceful and ethereal is this fair flower, swaying 
on its slender stalk among the tall grasses, that it seems 
almost unearthly. It blooms from South Dakota west 
to California, from June to August. 



plate VII, B 

Gunnison's Mariposa Lily, C. Gunnisoni. Root. — 
A corm. Stem. — Often simple, as above. Leaves. — As 
above, with incurved edges. Flowers. — Large, showy, 
white. Perianth. — The sepals as above, the ]jetals white 
or lavender, with a purple band across the centre within, 
yellowish and hairy below. Stamens (a). — With oval 
anthers. Pistil {h). — With a three-lobed stigma. 

This plant is much like its Mariposa sister. It grows 
as far south as New Mexico and blooms in midsummer, 
as does the other. I found it in a meadow in the Canyon 
of the Grand, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 

Another Western genus is the Yucca, which has hollow, 
spike-like leaves, with fibrous threads hanging from their 
margins. The flowers are large, creamy-white, have 
separate segments, and droop from a tall, dense, terminal 
cluster. They bloom in spring and early summer. 

Spanish Bayonet, Yucca baccata, is the largest. It 
is sometimes 8° high. Its flowers are very large and its 
fruit edible. 




I 



/ 



- t 



U~7''o1. 



PLATE Vll. Reduced about S from Life Sue 

A. Xuttall's Mariposa Lily, Calochortiis iSuttallii 

B. Gunnison's Mariposa Lily. Calochurtus Gunnisoni 



PLATE VIII 

YKLLOW C'LINTONIA 

C/iiiloiiia borcalis 



Bear-Grass, Y. glauca, is smaller and much shorter. 

These plants both grow on the dry Western prairies. 

Adam's Needle, Y. filamenlosa, has lanceolate, flat 
leaves. It is cultivated, and has escaped in places. It 
grows wild in Florida, Louisiana, and Tennessee. 



LILIES-OF-THE- VALLEY 

THE Lily-of-the- Valley Family grows from root- 
stocks, never from bulbs or corms. The leaves are 
simple, parallel-veined and broad, except in the 
Asparagus and its allies, where they are reduced to short, 
thread-like scales with tiny branchlets in the axils. The 
flowers grow in racemes, umbels, panicles or are soHtary ; 
they are regular and perfect. The perianth is either 
divided into four to six segments, or is in one piece, with 
six lobes or teeth. The stamens grow from the perianth. 
The pistil has a two to three-celled ovary, and a style 
with a generally three-lobed stigma. Tlae fruit is a 
fleshy berry with few or numerous seeds. 

Several members of this group so much resemble the 
Lily Family Proper, that at first sight it is difficult to 
distinguish them. 

plate VIII 

Yellow Clintonia, Clmtonia borealis. Root. — A 
slender rootstock. Stem. — A simple scape, 6'-i5' high. 
Leaves. — Large, 2-5, oval, smooth. Flowers. — Lily- 
like, 3-6 in an umbel, drooping, greenisli yellow. Peri- 
anth. — Of six recurved segments. Stamens [a). — Six. 
Pistil {b). — With a two-celled ovary. Fruit. — A bright- 
blue berry. 

The pale-yellow bells and bright leaves of the Clintonia 
decorate many moist woodlands, from Newfoundland 
south to North Carolina and west to Minnesota, during 
May and June. Sometimes a flower is borne on the scape, 
below the umbel. 

White Clintonia, C. umbcllulala, is rather tafler 




V 



PLATE VIII. Reduced abont H (roo Life Size 
Yellow CliotoDia, Clintonia borealis 



and woolly, with smaller, white, purple-dotted, erect, 
odorous flowers, a small leaf on the scape, and black, 
round berries. It ranges from New York to Georgia in 
May and June. 

Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis, is a native of Europe, 
escaped from cultivation in various parts of the country. 
The young shoots make the delicious vegetable, which 
we all know. The small, thread-like leaves of the plant 
do not look like the lily tribe, but the bell-like, drooping, 
greenish flowers, with their six small segments, point the 
way. The fruit is a scarlet berry. The plant blooms 
in early summer and again in autumn. 

PLATE IX, A 

False Solomon's Seal, Wild Spikenard, Vagnera 
racemosa {Smilacina raccmosa). Root. — A thick, scarred 
rootstock. Stem. — Curved, simple, i°-3° high. Leaves. 
— Oval, sessile, alternate, finely woolly. Flowers (a). — 
In a densely flowered, terminal panicle, small, creamy- 
white. Perianth. — Of six oblong segments. Stamens 
(6).— Six. Pistil (<-).— White. Fruit.— A red berry 
speckled with purple. 

These feathery tassels of creamy flowers grow pro- 
fusely, from May to July in rich woods or thickets, across 
the continent. 

V. amplexicaulis is similar, with clasping leaves and a 
longer style. It grows westward. 

PLATE IX, B 

Star-Flowered Solomon's Seal, V. stellata. Root. 
— A stout, fleshy rootstock. Stem. — Stout, erect, 8'-2o' 
high. Leaves. — Veiny, sessile, somewhat clasping, 
oblong-lanceolate. Flowers (d). — In a few-flowered, 
terminal raceme, star-shaped, larger than V. racemosa, 
white. Perianth. — Of six oblong segments. Sta- 
mens fc).— Six. Pistil (/).— White. Fruit.— A black or 
green Ijcrry with six black stripes. 

This plant is stouter and less graceful than its sister, 
V. racemosa, but its star-like flowers are more attractive. 




"I.ATK IX. Radaced about ^ from LHe Slie 

v. False Solomoo's SeaJ, Vagnera ractmota 
B. SUr-flowered Solomon's Seal, Vagntra stellata 



PLATE X 

Solomon's seal 
Po/yi^oiialiim hijJonim 



It has much the same range as the other, Ijut it blooms 
in moist soil. 

Unifolium lUiacetim may be a distinct species. It is 
similar and has conspicuousl}' folded leaves, and ranges 
west from the Black Hills. 

Three-Leaved Solomon's Seal, Vagnera iri^oUa, is 
smooth, small and slender, with 2-4 leaves and a few- 
flowered raceme of larger white flowers. It ranges from 
Newfoundland, south to Pennsylvania and west to Michi- 
gan, in bogs and wet woods. 

These plants all flower in May or June. 



Solomon's Seal, Polygonalum biflorum. Root. — A 
fleshy rootstock, with round scars from last year's growth. 
Stem. — Simple, arched, 8'-3° high. Leaves. — Oval, 
alternate, woolly beneath. Flowers. — Drooping, in 
clusters of 1-4, from the axils of the leaves, yellowish or 
greenish-white. Perianth. — In one bell-shaped piece, 
six-tootiied. Stamens [a). — Six, growing on the peri- 
anth. Pistil (/)). — With a head-like stigma. Fruit. — 
A dark blue or black berry. 

The rootstock gives the Solomon's Seal its cjuaint 
name; for the round scars, left from last season's growth, 
look somewhat like the imprint of a seal. This graceful 
plant is found in woods from New Brunswick to Florida 
and west to Michigan. It blooms in spring. 

Smooth Solomon's Seal, P. commulatum {P. gigan- 
teum), is similar, but smooth and generally much larger, 
sometimes reaching 8° in height. The clusters have 
generally more blossoms. It blooms somewhat later than 
the other, in moist woods, all over the country. 

Clasping-Leaved Twisted-Stalk, Streptopus am- 
plexifolius, rather resembles the Solomon's Seals. It has 
a twisted branching stem and alternate, clasping, oval 
leaves. The flowers are bell-shaped, with separate seg- 
ments, greenish- white, and droop singly or in pairs, 
from the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a red berry. 
It blooms in moist woods, across the continent. 

Sessile-Leaved Twisted-Stalk, 5. roseus, is much 
the same, save that the leaves are not clasping and the 



(^^ 




en 
O 



CnJ 



PLATE XI 

INDIAN CUCIMBER ROOT 

Medeola Virginiana 



flowers arc pink. This plant ranges with its sister. They 
both bloom in early summer. 

Hairy Disporum, Disporum laniiginosum, resembles 
the last. It is a finely hairy herb, with 1-3 terminal, 
greenish, erect flowers and an oval, red berry. It grows 
in the woods, through Ontario and the Eastern-coast 
States, and blooms in late spring. 

Rough-Fruited Disporum, D. trachycarpum, is simi- 
lar, with roughish, leathery fruit and yellowish-white 
flowers. It blooms from May to August across Canada 
and west of the Mississippi. 

False Lily-of-the- Valley, Unijolium Canadense 
{Maianthemum Canadense), is a smooth little plant with 
1-3 oval, alternate, shining leaves and a terminal raceme 
of small, creamy- white flowers with four segments and four 
stamens. It has an odor rather hke the true Lily-of-the- 
Valley, but fainter. The berry is pale red and speckled. 
It blooms in late spring, from Newfoundland to North 
Carolina and west to South Dakota. 

Convallaria majalis is the true Lily-of-the-Valley. 
It has the 2-4 oblong leaves from near the root and the 
scape of bell-shaped, six-lobed, white, fragrant flowers 
with which we are so familiar. It grows wild on high 
mountains in Virginia and the Carolinas and is com- 
mon in cultivation. It blooms in May and June. 

plate XI 

Indian Cucumber Root, Medcola Virginiana. Root. 
— A short, fleshy rootstock. Stem. — Simple, i°-2j° 
high. Leaves. — Broadly lanceolate, in two whorls; the 
lower at the middle of the stem and the upper at the apex 
just beneath the flowers. Flowers. — In a terminal, few- 
flowered umbel, on stalks which are bent for the flower 
and erect for the fruit. Perianth fa). — Of six green- 
ish yellow oval segments. Stamens {b). — Six, with 
orange anthers. Pistil (c). — With three long recurved 
reddish-brown, thread-like stigmas. Fruit. — A dark- 
purple berry. 

This odd-looking plant grows in moist woods from 
Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Minnesota. It 
blooms in early summer. Its berries are more showy 




3-^^-'^"^ 



PLATE XI. Rednced % from Ufa Stic 

Indian Cucumber Root. Med to I a Virginiana 



PLATE XII 

UlllTi; TKILI.U M 

Trillium grandiftorum 



than ils tlowcrs. The long stigmas of the latter give them 
an inscct-likc appearance. 

PI.ATK XII 

White Trillium, Trilliniu iirandijlontm. Root. — A 
short, scarred rootstock. Stem. — Simple, stout, 8'-i8' 
high. Leaves. — Broadly o\ate, three in a whorl at the 
centre of the stem. Flower. — Solitary, large, erect, white 
or purplish-pink. Perianth. — Of three green, lanceolate 
sepals and three \\hite, oblanceolate, erect, spreading 
petals. Stamens (a). — Six, with anthers longer than the 
fdaments. Pistil (b). — With a three-angled ovary and 
three stigmatic styles. Fruit. — A round, black berry. 

The large, triangular blossoms of these trilliums 
brighten many acres of woodland, shining like stars 
among the Bellworts and Solomon's Seals, in May or 
June, cast of the Mississippi. A monstrous form of 
this, with only two leaves, was found in Michigan. 

Nodding Trillium, T. ccrnuiim, is similar, with a 
smaller, white, nodding flower. It blooms over the same 
range a little earher. 

Painted Trillium, T.umlidaluni (or T.ery/lirocarpum), 
is slightly larger and blooms over the same time and range 
as the last. It has an erect, white flower streaked with 
purple or red. 

Early Trilliltm, T. nivale, is much smaller, with 
petioled leaves and an erect, white flower. It appears in 
early spring, from Pennsylvania to Minnesota and south 
to Kentucky. 

Prairie Trillium, T. reciirva/um, is a little larger, hav- 
ing a sessile, erect flower, with recurved sepals and 
frequently blotched leaves. It ranges south from Minne- 
sota through the Middle States. 

Sessile-Flowered Trillium, T. sessile, has sessile 
leaves and flowers. The leaves are often blotched, and 
the flowers are purple or green and fragrant. It ranges 
from Pennsylvania south and west to the Mississippi. 

Wake-Robin, Birth Root, T. erecttim, has a purple- 
red or pink or greenish, unpleasantly scented flower on a 
stalk rising above the sessile leaves. It ranges east of the 
Mississippi. 





'•r 






^ 



.6 



I'LATE XII. Life Site 

White Trilliam, Trillium j^r^iridiflorum 



PLATE XIII 

coKAi. Hour 

Cor all or li iza t oral lor h iza 



THE ORCHIS FAMILY 

THE orchids are more nearly related to the lilies 
than to any other family. In fact, their roots, 
stems, and leaves might often be mistaken for 
that tribe. The leaves are always parallel-veined, never 
compound, frequently grass-like, and are sometimes re- 
duced to scales. 

The form of the flower is the distinctive feature of the 
orchid. The calyx and corolla are very irregular and it is 
often difKicult to distinguish them. They are divided into 
six segments, three sepals, and three petals. One of the 
petals is called the Lip and is generally more showy than 
the others. Sometimes this lip is cut or fringed, some- 
times it is furnished with a spur, and often it is most 
grotesque in form or color. The most characteristic thing 
about the flower, however, is the Column. This is the 
ovary, surmounted by the style, bearing the stigma and 
the one or two anthers (or pollen sacs of the stamen) 
balanced each side of the stigma, or just above or below it. 
The pollen of the orchid grows in sticky masses. When 
disturbed by an insect, it is removed in one piece and 
deposited on the stigma of a neighboring blossom. The 
ovary is long and generally twisted and the seeds are 
very numerous and dust-like. The orchid is especially 
adapted to cross-fertilization. 

PLATE XIII 

Coral Root, Corallorhiza corallorhiza. Root. — 
Fleshy, coral-like. Stem. — 4'-i 2', simple. Leaves. — Re- 
duced to 2-5 scales. Flowers. — Greenish or dull purple, 
small, in racemes i'-3' long, 3-12 flowered. Perianth. — 
Of live narrow sepals and petals and a short, whitish lip 
with a short spur. Column {A). — Incurved, winged 
above. The anthers fa) above the stigma (6). Ovary (f). 

This insignificant little herb ranges over most of the 
United States. It blooms from May to June. 

Wister's Coral Root, C. Wisteriana, Many- 
Flowered Coral Root, C. muUiflora, and Striped 
Coral Root, C. striata, are much the same, but larger, 
with slightly more showy lips. 

13 




t 



^A 



f 



PLATE XIII. Life Sue 

Coral-root. Corallorhtta corallorhisa 






PLATE XIV 

A 
I.ADIKS' TRESSES 

Gyros/arliys ccrniia (Spirant lies ccniua) 
B 

GRASS- LEAVED LADIES' TRESSES 

Gyroslachys praecox 



Small-Flowered Coral Root, C. odontorliiza, is 
much smaller. 

Crested Coral Root, Hexalcclris aphyllus, is a large 
Southern, purple-brown genus much like these last. 

Large Twayblade, Lcptorchis liliijoUa, an early sum- 
mer orchid, has showy, purplish -green flowers, in a ter- 
minal raceme, with two large, bright leaves from the root. 
It flourishes east of the Mississippi. 

Loesel's Twaybl.ade, L. Locsclii, is a smaller, more 
Northern species. 

Broad-Lipped Twayblade, Listcra conva/larioidcs, 
Heart-Leaved Twayblade, L. cordaia, and Southern 
Twayblade, L. australis, have small flowers with lips, 
long in proportion, and bear their two leaves opposite at 
the centre of their stems. They grow in woods and bogs 
from the Northern States southward. 

plate XIV, a 

Ladies' Tresses, Gyrostachys ccrnua (S piranihes cer- 
nua). Root. — Fleshy, forked. Stem. — b'-2^' high, 
simple. Leaves. — Grass-like, turning above to pointecl 
bracts. Flowers. — White or yellowish, fragrant; de- 
flexed in a twisted, terminal, bracted spike. Perianth. — 
Of four divisions. The upper sepal connected with the 
two arching petals. The lip crinkled. Column (r). — 
Arched, bearing the anthers (a) at the back. The stigma 
(5) has a beak which covers the anther. Ovary (0). 

A dainty little plant blooming in meadows and swamps, 
from August to October, east of the Mississippi. It has a 
lily-of-the-valley like fragrance. Its plaited appearance 
gives it its common name. 

plate XIV, B 

Grass-Leaved Ladies' Tresses, G. praecox. Root, 
Stem, Leaves. — Much as above, but smaller and more 
slender. Flowers. — Like G. cernua, but smaller and in 
a more spiral spike. Perianth and Column. — As above. 

This plant grows, in late summer, from New York 
southward. 

Hooded Ladies' Tresses, G. roDianzoffiaiia, Wide- 
Leaved Ladies' Tresses, G./'/aH/a^i^'/Hca, and Fragrant 

14 




I2~~J~ 'C5 



HLATE XIV Reduced about « from Life Siw 

A. Ladies' Tresses. Gyrostackys ctrnua 

B. Grais-leaved Ladies' Tresses. Gyrostackys praecox 



PLATE XV 

ARKTHISA 

.1 relli u.sa bulhosa 



Ladies' Tresses, G. odorata, are described by their 
names. 

Little Ladies' Tresses, G. simplex, and Slender 
Ladies' Tresses, G. gracilis, are smaller and have 2-3 
early fading root-leaves and later only bracts. 

Ca-lypso, Calypso bulbosa. Root. — A bulb. Stem. — 
Simple, 3'-6' high. Leaves. — One, roundish with a 
heart-shaped base. Flower. — Solitary, terminal, showy, 
variegated purple, pink and yellow. Perianth. — Of 
linear, erect or spreading sepals and petals, the lip sac- 
shaped, drooping, with a patch of yellow wool. Column. 
— Petal-hke above, with a lid-like anther above the 
stigma. 

A fascinating little nymph who appears in early sum- 
mer, in bogs, from Labrador to Vermont and west to 
California and Arizona. At first sight it resembles a 
small lady's-slipper. 



Arethusa, Arethusa bulbosa. Root. — A bulb. Stem. 
— Simple, 5'-io' high, rather stout, set with bracts. 
Leaves. — Solitary, linear, appearing after the flower. 
Flower. — Solitary, terminal, large, showy, rose-purple. 
Perianth. — Of oval sepals and petals, erect or arched 
over the column. The lip is notched, fringed, streaked, 
and crested with yellow or white, hairy ridges. Column 
(C). — Petal-like, winged and curved above with the 
anther (a) and stigma (.?), which are borne on its lower 
face. Ovary (0). 

This dainty orchid, surprised in its native bogs, in 
May or June, reminds one of a startled fawn, by its 
two erect, ear-like sepals. It ranges from Newfound- 
land to South Carolina and west to Indiana; but ow- 
ing to its inveterate enemy, the tlower-pickcr, it has 
become rather rare. 

Helleborine, Epipactis viridiflora, is a stout herb, 
i°-2° high, with ovate, clasping leaves and a bracted 
raceme of greenish-purple or yellow flowers. It has an 
undulating lip and pointed sepals and petals. It blooms 
near Toronto and in western New York in July and Au- 
gust. 

15 




PLATE XV Life Site 
Aretbu^a, Arelkusa bulbosa 



PLATE XVI 

CRASS PIXK 

Liinoiloruiu tuberosum (Calopogoii pulchclliis) 



Crane-Fly Orchis, Tipiilaria uiiijo/ia, is a rather 
rare little summer orchid, with purplish-green, long- 
spurred, raccmed blossoms. It Ijiears one leaf after the 
flowers. 

Putty-Root, Adam and Eve, A plectrum spicatiim, is 
a Western spring orchid, with rather large, yellowish- 
brown and purple flowers and an autumnal leaf. 

PLATE XVI 

Grass-Pink, Calopogon, Limodorum tuberosum (Calo- 
pogon pulchellus) . Root. — A round, solid bulb. Stem. 
— Slender, simple, i°-i3° high. Leaf. — (3ne, grass- 
like. Flowers. — Showy, in a few-flowered, terminal 
raceme, rose-purple. Perianth. — Of ovate sepals and 
petals, and an erect, pale-pink lip, with a tuft of yellow 
wool. Column (.4). — Petal-like above, winged, spread- 
ing horizontally. The anther {a) is attached to the back 
of the column. The stigma {s) is beneath. Ovary (o). 

This dainty plant waves its blossoms among the tall 
grasses of the wet marshes, in June and July, from New- 
foundland to Florida and west to Minnesota. This 
orchid's peculiarity is an ovary which is not twisted, so 
consequently, the lip is on the upper instead of on the 
lower side of the flower. 

Rattlesnake Plantain, Peramium repens (Goodyera 
repens), is a small orchid, with a rosette of ovate, green 
and white blotched leaves at the base of the stem, and a 
one-sided spike of small, greenish-white flowers, with a 
sac-shaped lip. 

Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, P. pubesccns, is 
woolly, with a thicker spike (not one-sided). 

These two range on the Atlantic coast and west to 
Minnesota. 

Menzies' Rattlesnake Plantain, P. Menzicsii, is 
sometimes without the white mottling. It has a swelling, 
pointed lip (not sac-shaped), and the spike is somewhat 
one-sided. It grows in Canada and on the Western coast. 

These all bloom in July and August and are insignifi- 
cant except for their showy leaves. 

Showy Orchis, Orchis speclabilis. Root. — Fibrous. 
Stem. — Stout, iive-angled, 4'-: 2' high. Leaves. — Large, 
16 




f 



Pt.ATR XVI Kedocwl abont H from Lift Slir 
Grass-piok, Limetiorum tuberoium 



PLATE XVII 

Ki)Si; I'OC.OMA 

Poj^onia opli io gloss o ides 



two from near the base of the stem, obovate, clammy. 
Flowers. — Showy, in a 3-6 flowered, terminal raceme, 
violet-purple, pink and white. Perianth. — Sepals joined 
in an arch, petals beneath, lip whitish and spurred. 
Column. — Violet at the back, with the stigma between 
the two anthers. 

This is the earliest of the orchids. It grows in rich 
woods in the eastern half of the continent. 

Small Round-Leaved Orchis, O. rohmdijolia, is 
more slender, with smaller rose-colored and white flowers 
and one oval leaf. It blooms in early summer, in the 
damp woods of Canada and the Northern States. 

White Adder's Mouth, Achroanthes monophylla, and 
Green Adder's Mouth, A. uni folia, are two small 
orchids with insignificant flowers and one roundish leaf. 
They bloom in woods in July. Usually the first in the 
North, the second in the South also. 

PLATE XVII 

Rose Pogonia, Snake-Mouth, Pogonia ophioglos- 
soides. Root. — Branching. Stem. — Simple, 8'-i 5' high 
Leaves. — 1-2, pale, lanceolate, erect. Flowers. — Large, 
solitary or in pairs, terminal, nodding, having a leaf-like 
bract beneath, pale rose-pink. Perianth. — With oval, 
equal sepals and petals. The lip fringed, crested, and 
streaked with yellow and purple. Column (.4 and B). — 
Club-shaped, with a lid-like anther (a) capping the 
stigma (s). Ovary (0). 

A dainty, fragrant flower growing in swamps and 
meadows with the wild Cranberry and the Calopogon. 
It blooms in June or July. 

Spreading Pogonia, P. divaricala, is somewhat the 
same, but larger; the sepals are linear and dark-colored 
and longer than the flesh-colored, lanceolate petals. We 
find it in swamps in July. 

Nodding Pogonia, P. trianthophora, is smaller, with 
little, ovate, alternate leaves and pale-purple, drooping, 
axillary flowers. It appears in late summer. 

Whorled Pogonia, P. verticillata, bears its leaves in 
a whorl, above which is the drooping flower, with its 

17 




f-A 
"f B 



( 1 - 1 -ot 



PLATK XVII. Reduced abont '\ from Life Riir 
Rose Pogonia. Pogonia ophUglottoides 



PLATE XVIII 

A 
LONC.-BRACTKI) ORCHIS 

l/ahiiiiirid braclvata 

B 
TALI, LEAFY GREEN ORCHIS 

Ilahenaria hyperborea 
c 

INTERMEHIATE BOG ORCHIS 

llabt'iiaria mctliii 



long, dark-purple sepals and oval, greenish-yellow petals. 
This appears in May or June. 

These four varieties range east of the Mississippi. 

Smaller Whorled Pogonia, P. affinis, is similar, but 
smaller, frequently with two greenish-yellow flowers, with 
equal sepals and petals. It is a rare local plant, bloom- 
ing in June in Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. 

PLATE XVIII, A 

Long-Bracted Orchis, Hahcnaria hracteata. Root. 
— Fibrous. Stem. — Simple, 6'-2° high. Leaves. — 
Lanceolate or oval, alternate, turning to long bracts be- 
neath each flower. Flowers (a). — Small, greenish, in a 
loose-flowered, terminal raceme. Perianth. — With oval 
spreading sepals and narrow petals. A much longer lip, 
with a small spur. Column (/)). — With two anthers {s) 
above the stigma {p). 

None of the green orchids are showy. This is one of 
the least insignificant. It grows in woods and meadows 
from New Brunswick to the Rockies and south to North 
Carolina. We find it all summer. 

plate xviri, B 

Tall Leafy Green Orchis, H. hypcrhorca. Root. — 
Fibrous. Stem. — Simple, 8'-^° high. Leaves. — Lan- 
ceolate, alternate. Flowers (</). — Small, in a terminal 
raceme, yellowish-green Perianth. — With ovate sepals 
and petals, and a lanceolate lip, with a spur of the same 
length. Column. — Anthers above the stigma. 

This little orchid grows across the continent, north from 
New Jersey, Colorado and Oregon, from May to August. 
I found it in the Yellowstone Park. 

PLATE xviii, c 

Intermediate Bog Orchis, H. media. Root. — 
Fleshy. Stem. — Simple. Leaves. — Lanceolate, acute. 
Flowers (c). — Small, in a densely flowered terminal 
raceme, greenish or purplish. Perianth. — Like the last, 
only the spur is much longer than the lip. Column. — 
As above. 

This orchid resembles H. hyperborea. It ranges from 
i8 



f'^ 




f 






HLATE XVIII Reduced «bout H from Life Siie 

A. Long-bracted Orchis. Habenaria bracttata 

B. Tall Leafy Green Orchis, Habenaria kyperborta 

C. Intermediate Bog Orchis. Habenaria media 



PLATE XIX 

A 
C.RKKN WOOD ORCHIS 

Ifiihiiuiriii iliivcllala (Habcniiria Iridnitata) 

B 
RAGGED-FRINCKD ORCHIS 

Ilahcnaria laccra 



June to August from Quebec to New York (according to 
Miss Nilcs). I found it in the Yosemite Valley, Cali- 
fornia. 

Tall White Bog Orchis, H. dilatata, is much like 
these, save that the flowers are white. It grows all 
summer in the northern half of the United States and 
Canada. 

Tliree more Northern summer orchids are: First, 
Round-Leaved Orchis, H. orhiculata, with its greenish- 
white, recurved sepals. Second, Hooker's Orchis, H. 
Hookeriana, with its lanceolate, greenish-yellow, drooping 
sepals. Both have long raccmed scapes, springing from 
two round, flat leaves. Third, Small Bog Orchis, H. 
ohtusata, with yellowish-green flowers and a single leaf. 

Two small Southern summer orchids are: Southern 
White Orchis, H. nivea, with long-spurred flowers and 
glass-like leaves; and Southern Yellow Orchis, H. 
Integra, with dense spikes of orange-yellow flowers and 
lanceolate leaves. 

plate XIX, A 

Green Wood Orchis, H. clavellala {H. tridentata). 
Stem. — Angled, 8'-i8' high. Leaves. — One, large, 
oblanceolate, several bracts above. Flowers. — Small, in 
short, loose racemes, greenish. Perianth. — Of ovate 
sepals and petals, with a three-toothed lip and a very 
long, incurved, club-shaped spur. Column. — Anthers 
(a) above the stigma (.v), which has three club-like ap- 
pendages. 

This very insignificant flower is perhaps the most 
common of the genus. It blooms east of the Missis- 
sippi in July and August. 

Another much like this, with a shorter spur and more 
leafy stem, is Tubercled Orchis, H. flava (H. 
virescens). 

The names of many of these orchids have been changed 
so often, and they seem so much alike, that it is rather 
difficult to identify them. The insignificance of these 
flowers causes the layman to exclaim, when told that 
they are orchids; as the general idea, of this family, 
seems to be a gorgeous air-plant. 



\ 




9-/ -03 



PLATE XIX. Rsduccd 'i Irom Life Sim 

A. Green Wood Orchis, Habenaria clavellatta 
K. Ragged Fringed Orchis, Habenaria laetra 



PLATE XX 

A 
WIMTK-FRIXCF.I) ORCHIS 

llahciiaria hhpliurit^/o/iis 

n 

vi:i.i.o\v-rRi.\Gi:i) orchis 

Iliibenaria ciliaris 



PLATE XIX, B 

Ragged Fringed Orchis, H. lacera. Stem. — Si mplc, 
i°-2° high. Leaves. — Lanceolate, alternate, becoming 
smaller above. Flowers. — Small, in a terminal raceme, 
greenish-yellow. Perianth. — The sepals ovate, the upper 
one being round. The petals linear. The lip showy, 
three-parted, deeply fringed, with a short spur. Col- 
umn. — The anthers (a) divided by the stigma (c). 
Ovary (b). 

This is the prettiest of the green orchids, the deeply 
fringed lips giving the raceme a peculiarly feathery effect. 
It blooms east of the Mississippi in June and July. 

PLATE XX, A 

White Fringed Orchis, H. blephari glottis. Root. — 
Small, fibrous. Stem. — i°-2h° high. Leaves. — Lanceo- 
late, the upper ones smaller. Flowers. — Pure white, 
showy, in a terminal raceme. Perianth. — Sepals round. 
Petals smaller, toothed. Lip lanceolate, fringed, with a 
very long spur. Column (C). — The stigma (5) dividing 
the anthers {a). Ovary (0). 

The loveliness of this flower almost takes away one's 
breath. It frequents midsummer marshes, ranging from 
Newfoundland south to North Carolina and west to 
Minnesota. 

Cream Fringed Orchis, H. holopetala, is much the 
same, but pale yellow, with a less fringed lip and entire 
petals. It is probably a hybrid of the foregoing and fol- 
lowing varieties. 

plate XX, B 

Yellow Fringed Orchis, H. ciliaris. Root, Stem, 
Leaves. — The same as in H. blephariglottis. Flowers. 
A little larger than the White-Fringed Orchis, with a 
more deeply fringed lip and of a bright orange-yellow. 
Very showy. Perianth and Column (C). — As above. 

This gorgeous flower grows in swamps with the White- 
Fringed Orchis. Its flaming torches doubtless attract 
the necessary insects, but unfortunately, they also guide 
the ruthless flower-picker, to the inevitable doom of the 
variety. 



'ifc 



1 







IM.ATE XX. Rednced ir, from I.ife Sii« 

A. White Fringed Orchis. Habenarta blephariglottus 

B. Yellow Fringed Orchis. Habtnarta ciliarh 



PLATE XXI 

LARGE IHRPLK-IKINGKI) ORCHIS 

ilabenaria grandiflora 



Crested Yellow Orchis, H. cristata, is much the 
same, but smaller, with deep-orange flowers. 

Prairie White Fringed Orchis, H. leucophaca, is a 
larger variety, with fragrant, white flowers sometimes 
tinged with green. The lip is divided in three parts and 
is much fringed. It blooms on moist prairies in July 
from western New York to the Mississippi. It is very 
showy and beautiful. 

The flowers of this group remind one of tiny dancers 
poised for the ballet, or a swarm of fairies ready for flight. 

PLATE XXI 

Large Purple Fringed Orchis, H. granJifiora. 
Root. — Fleshy, fibrous. Stem. — Stout, i°-5° high. 
Leaves. — Oval or lanceolate. Flowers. — In a long, 
terminal, thickly flowered raceme, \ery showy, white, 
pale pink, or deep rose-purple. Perianth. — Upper sepals 
and petals connected, erect. Petals more or less toothed. 
Lip divided in three fan-shaped parts, deeply fringed. 
Column .4). — Anthers (a) divided by the stigma (b). 

The largest and most beautiful of all this genus is the 
Purple-Fringed Orchis. It grows in rich woods and 
meadows through Canada west to Michigan and south 
to North Carolina. When we surprise a group shining 
through our dark, Northern woods in July or August, 
their feathery loveliness is like a touch of the tropics. 
If we could be content to admire them there and leave 
them untouched, we might have them with us for many 
generations to come. 

Smaller Purple Fringed Orchis, H. psycodes, is 
much the same, with shorter fringe. It blooms with the 
larger variety, but slightly later. 

Fringeless Purple Orchis, H. pcramoena, is another 
near relative, with a toothed instead of a fringed hp. 
It ranges in summer, from New York south to Virginia 
and west to Illinois. 

Andrew's Rose- Purple Orchis, H. Andrewseii, has 
sepals and petals much like the White-Fringed, and a lip 
like the Purple-Fringed Orchis, parted and more deeply 
cut. It appears in summer, in Massachusetts and Ver- 
mont. This is probably a hybrid of H. lacera and H. 




2-^-7- '03- 



J'LATE XXI Reduced V, from Utc Site 

Large Purple Kringed Orchis. Habenaria grandi/lora 



PLATE XXII 
MOCCASIN ilowi:r 
Cypripcdinm acaiilc 



psycodes. It is rare and local, but numerous in certain 
haunts. 

The most showy and beautiful group of the orchids 
which grow in this country, however, are the Cypripe- 
diums, with their sac-shaped lips. The most common 
of these is : 

plate xxii 

The Moccasin Flower, Pixk Lady's Slipper, 
Cypripedium acaulc. Root. — Tufted, fibrous. Stem. 
— A simple scape 6'-i2' high. Leaves. — Two, from the 
root, somewhat hairy, elliptic, large. Flower. — Large, 
solitary, nodding from the top of the scape, rose-pink and 
brown. Perianth. — Sepals lanceolate, purple-brown and 
greenish, the two lower united. The petals narrow and 
longer. The lip very large, pendulous, shoe or sac- 
shaped, deep rose-pink, veined. Column (.4). — With an 
anther (ft) on each side of the large stigma (c). A large 
petal-like, sterile stamen spreads over them. Ovary {d). 

The nodding Moccasin hangs its heavy head above 
the fragrant pine needles in sandy or rocky woods. In 
its native haunts it is irresistibly lovely, for each plant 
is perfect in itself. When it is gathered and bunched it 
loses half its charm, although it is too beautiful to be 
altogether spoiled. Sometimes the lip is white, the sepals 
and petals yellow, and the leaves a lighter green. This 
is an albino form, but it appears so frecjuently that it 
nearly amounts to a separate variety. 

Ram's Head Lady's Slipper, C. arielinum. Root. 
— Tufted, fibrous. Stem. — Simple, 8'-i 2' high. Leaves. 
— 3-4, elliptic. Flowers. — Solitary, nodding, smaller 
than others of this genus. Perianth. — Sepals longer 
than the lip, lanceolate, greenish-brown. Petals linear. 
Lip cone-shaped, red and white, veiny, prolonged at the 
apex into a distorted spur somewhat resembling a ram's 
head. Column. — Much as C. acaule. 

This is the rarest, one of the smallest, and surely the 
oddest of the genus, but will, I fear, soon be extinct. 
When we find it the day is marked with a red letter. It 
ranges from May to .\ugust, through the cold, damp 
woods of Canada and the Northern States. 




PLATE XXII Reduced 4 from Life Si»e 
Moccassin Flower. Cypripidium acaule 



PLATE XXIII 

vi:r.i.()\v i..\i>v's slipper 
Cypripaiiiim liirsiilinii (Cypri prdiiim piihrsccns) 



PLATE XXIII 

Large Yellow Lady's Slipper, C. hirsulum (C. 
pubescens). Root. — Same as previous varieties. Stem. 
— Leafy, i°-2° high. Leaves. — Oval, slightly hirsute. 
Flower. — Large, solitary, terminal, and nodding. Peri- 
anth. — With oval sepals, the two lower joined. Petals 
linear and twisted, all yellowish-green or brownish- 
purple. Lip much inflated, chrome yellow. Column 
(A). — Much as other varieties. The sterile stamen (c) 
yellow with red dots. Anthers (a). Stigma (b). 

The bright flower of the Yellow Moccasin appears in 
boglands or damp woods, from Nova Scotia west to 
Minnesota and south to Alabama, in May to July. It 
is not cjuite so large as C. acaule, but larger than the Ram's 
Head Slipper. It is not common — I have found it only 
once ; but my quest was well rewarded then, for the deli- 
cate, balloon-like sac is very lovely. 

Small Yellow L.\dy's Slipper, C. parviflorum. Root, 
Stem, Leaves. — Much as above. Flower. — Smaller, 
fragrant. Perianth. — With bright yellow, hairy-lined 
lip, marked with purple or crimson. Column. — As 
above. 

This variety often intergrades with C. hirsutum. It 
may be a simple form of the latter. It grows in bogs, 
damp woods, and on hillsides in the mountains, from 
Newfoundland to Georgia and occasionally out to the 
Pacific, from May to July. 

Prairie Moccasin Flower, Small White Lady's 
Slipper, C. candidum. Stem. — 6'-i2' high. Leaves. 
— 3-4, elliptic or lanceolate. Flowers.— Fragrant, 
generally solitary, terminal, white and brown. Perianth. 
— Much like C. hirsutum, with a white lip lined with 
purple stripes. Column. — As above. 

The White Lady's Slipper is much like the yellow. 
It ranges in May to July, from New York to the Rockies. 
John Muir found it, or a variety much like it, in the Yo- 
semite Valley. This, together with the Small Yellow 
Lady's Slipper, is the only fragrant cypripcdium we 
have. 

Although the Pacific coast is rich in beautiful flowers, 
this white moccasin is the only cypripedium it can boast. 

23 






^7 



PLATE XXIII. Life Slie 

Yellow Lady's Slipper. Cypripediuin hinutum 



PLATE XXIV 

SHOWY lady's SLII'PKR 

Cyprifrdium rci^huic (Cypri prdiuni spniahilc) 



PLATE XXIV 

Showy Lady's Slipper, C. reginac (C. spectabile). 
Root. — As above. Stem. — Stout, leafy, i°-2° high. 
Leaves. — ElHptic, deeply veined. Flowers. — 1-4, large, 
showy, terminal, white and pink. Perianth. — With 
roundish, white sepals, the two lower joined and narrower. 
Petals white. Lip large, veiny, white or deeply stained 
with rose or wine-color above. Column (r). — Much as 
in C. hirsutum. Anthers (a). Stigma (s). Ovary (0). 

This plant ranges from Nova Scotia south to Georgia 
and west to Minnesota from June to September. It is 
by far the most beautiful of our native orchids; perhaps, 
if one could fill that place, the most beautiful of all our 
wild flowers. I have only had the good fortune to see it 
once or twice, and never in its native haunts; but even so, 
I was well repaid. The botanists have done well to crown 
this beauty, for a queen she is indeed. But unfor- 
tunately a queen in e.xile, for her admirers have been so 
busy stripping her of her favors that she is forced to 
hide in remote swamps and deep woods, and even there 
she is in danger from their too assiduous devotion. 

Oh, good friend, if you find her, stop and make 
obeisance, but do not tear her from her retreat ! If you 
must pluck a few blossoms, leave many behind for the 
sake of the future of this most charming American 
bcautv. 







Pl-ATE XXIV. Reduced about % from Life Site 
Showy Lady's Slipper, Cypripedium reginea